and are only estimates of the urban populations within administrative city limits; a different ranking exists when considering the total municipal populations (which includes suburban and rural populations). 269 State-sponsored slavery is part of the Chinese penal system, and there are over a thousand slave labour prisons and camps known collectively as the Laogai. The People's Republic of China is the second-largest country in the world by land area 187 after Russia, and is either the third- or fourth-largest by total area, after Russia, Canada and, depending on the definition of total area, the United States. 133 134 Under Xi, the Chinese government began large-scale efforts to reform its economy, 135 136 which has suffered from structural instabilities and slowing growth. This figure was calculated using data from the CIA World Factbook. Economists Skeptical" via. The shorter form is "China" Zhnggu ( from zhng central and gu state o a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. 23 As of 2016, it is the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and largest by purchasing power parity (PPP).
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163 Environmental issues Main article: Environmental issues in China See also: Water resources of China and Energy policy of China In recent decades, China has suffered from severe environmental deterioration and pollution. China's environmental watchdog, sepa, stated in 2007 that China is losing 4,000 km2 (1,500 sq mi) per year to desertification. 420 China's high-speed rail (HSR) system started construction in the early 2000s.
Yearbook of the United Nations. Economists Think of Official China Statistics? Archived from the original on Retrieved "China's forex reserves reach USD.85 trillion". 419 In 2013, Chinese railways delivered.106 billion passenger trips, generating 1,059.56 billion passenger-kilometers and carried.967 billion tons of freight, generating 2,917.4 billion cargo tons-kilometers. "China's utterly distorted economy is a train wreck waiting to happen". Retrieved Intellectual Property Rights.
"Age of Zhoukoudian Homo erectus determined with (26)Al 10)Be burial dating". A b "Freedom in the World 2011: China". China connects through the Kazakh border to the Eurasian Steppe which has been an artery of communication between East and West since the Neolithic through the Steppe route the ancestor of the terrestrial Silk Road (s). 299 In terms of purchasing power parity (PPP) GDP, China's economy is the largest in the world, with a 2014 PPP GDP of US17.632 trillion. 522 Some of the most important early texts include the I Ching and the Shujing within the Four Books and Five Classics which served as the Confucian authoritative books for the state-sponsored curriculum in dynastic era. 105 The Second Sino-Japanese War (19371945 a theater of World War II, forced an uneasy alliance between the Kuomintang and the PLA.